What is graphene?

In physiochemical terms graphene is a two-dimensional layer of carbon atoms with a thickness of single atom and hexagonal “honeycomb” atom layout. It is often presented as a uniform large-dimension grid. In reality such a perfect structure does not exist, it may only be created in form of small adjacent and overlapping flakes.

Why is graphene so unique?

The graphene is so unique because it combines a set of properties unseen in any previously known material. These are: mechanical strength, elasticity, thermal properties (high conductivity), transparency for the whole spectrum of electromagnetic waves, impermeability for practically all substances, biological properties, sensory capabilities, electronic properties (mainly very high electron mobility), high thermal and electrical conductivity.

How is graphene made?

You can make it several ways; the simplest way is to simply peel it off a piece of graphite, which is an easy way but it is terribly uncontrolled. There are also other methods to create graphene layers called CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Graphite and Graphene – what is the difference?

“The attributes of graphene – transparency, density, electric and thermal conductivity, elasticity, flexibility, hardness resistance and capacity to generate chemical reactions with other substances – harbour the potential to unleash a new technological revolution of more magnificent proportions than that ushered in by electricity in the 19th century and the rise of the internet in the 1990s.” – LarrainVial

In very basic terms graphene could be described as a single, one atom thick layer of the commonly found mineral graphite; graphite is essentially made up of hundreds of thousands of layers of graphene. In actuality, the structural make-up of graphite and graphene, and the method of how to create one from the other, is slightly different.

Can you provide general information on graphene properties?

  • High electron mobility at room temperature levels (≈ 130 × higher than for silicon, ≈ 25 × higher than for GaAs) and high electrical conductivity:
  • Hight mechanical strength (Young modulus ≈ 100 GPa):
  • High durability for high current densities:
  • Elasticity:
  • High active surface per weight unit (limit 2630 m2/g):
  • High transmittance (98%) for electromagnetic radiation with flat characteristics:
  • High sensitivity to chemical compounds (chemical “control” of physical properties):
  • High thermal conductivity combined with anisotropic properties (≈ 300 W/(m×K) along the surface, ≈ 2 W/(m×K) in perpendicular direction):
  • Impermeability (if without defects):
  • Hydrophobicity
  • Bactericidal properties

What are the possible areas of graphene application?

  • High-frequency transistors
  • Spintronics
  • Semiconductor memory
  • Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
  • High-frequency electronics
  • ESD, EMI and RFI coatings
  • VHF antennas
  • Composite materials
  • Very high rigidity enables pressure sensor applications
  • Cable materials
  • Flexible electronics
  • RFID tags
  • Energy storage (supercapacitors, new generation cells)
  • Fuel cells
  • Transparent electrodes, photovoltaics, materials for laser production
  • Biosensors, chemical sensors
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Heat/energy storage
  • Heat flow management – cooling
  • Coatings and paints
  • Food wraps
  • Layered composites
  • Composites working in high-humidity environment
  • Materials for sterile room construction
  • Dressing materils

What does transferred graphene mean?

Epitaxial graphene growth technology requires substrate on which graphene could be grown. To create monolayer graphene we use high quality copper foil. Then when we want to deposit layer on other material we have to exfoliate graphene using our technology and transfer graphene onto other material.

Can I give you my material on which I want graphene to be deposit?

Yes. But every time you have to discuss the possibilities with our experts. To specify your custom order please contact us: info@nano-carbon.pl

What are the shapes you can deliver CUSTOM graphene in?

Custom-made samples may have any geometry and maximum dimensions of 10 cm × 10 cm or a diameter of 15 cm. Available foil thickness is 12 μm, 18 μm, 25 μm, 100 μm and 127 μm. Another possibility is depositing graphene on copper foils supplied by the customer.

Why do you sell graphene oxide dispersions in water?

Due to its hydrophobic properties it’s really hard to prepare graphene solution in water. One of the advantages of the gaphene oxide is its easy dispensability in water and other organic solvents, as well as in different matrixes, due to the presence of the oxygen functionalities. This remains as a very important property when mixing the material with ceramic or polymer matrixes when trying to improve their electrical and mechanical properties.

Reduction of graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide. How do you do it?

In the past, scientists have created rGO from GO by:

  • Treating GO with hydrazine hydrate and maintaining the solution at 100 for 24 hours
  • Exposing GO to another form of strong pulse light, such as those produced by xenon flashtubes using hydrogen plasma for a few seconds
  • Heating GO in distilled water at varying degrees for different lengths of time
  • Combining GO with an expansion-reduction agent such as urea and then heating the solution to cause the urea to release reducing gases, followed by cooling
  • Directly heating GO to very high levels in a furnace
  • Linear sweep voltammetry

Why Nano Carbon graphene on Silicon Carbide is so unique?

Nano Carbon technology allows to stop sublimation of Silicon Carbine due to unique parameters discovered by Dr Włodek Strupiński. This process allows chemical vapor deposition process on silicon carbine with high quality and control of parameters resulting in the best quality graphene in the world. You may find information on this technology hear ref. W. Strupinski at al, Nano-Letters, 11 (2011) 1786

How does graphene compare to silicon, the material currently used in electronics?

Graphene has certain advantages over silicon and can do things that silicon would never do, so it would be a really valuable electronic material that could surpass silicon in many of its properties. Nano carbon basing on the best graphene technology on SiC in the world We’re actually in the process of developing a new electronic material, and we think that we have overcome the biggest hurdles that would stop carbon nanotube electronics while retaining the most essential features.

What are the problems with carbon nanotubes, and how does graphene overcome them?

Carbon nanotubes have several problems: one, it is very difficult to put them exactly where you want to. Second, it’s quite difficult to connect to them wire them up. Those are the two major hurdles with carbon nanotubes. Also, you don’t treat them like you do silicon. When you do nanotube electronics, it’s an entirely different set of processing steps that you use compared with silicon. If you work with graphitic materials graphene on the surface of silicon carbide, you can use all the common steps now used in the processing of silicon to make electronic devices, but on a much finer scale than what is possible with silicon. You can break the barrier that silicon is facing, going all the way down to the nanoscale.

Is it possible to build supercapacitors from graphene?

Due to the lightweight dimensions of graphene based supercapacitors and the minimal cost of production coupled with graphene’s elastic properties and inherit mechanical strength, we will almost certainly see technology within the next five to ten years incorporating these supercapacitors.

Should I invest in graphene as a material like in gold/silver/platinum?

Definitely not. We do our best to optimize the production process (like everybody else in the world and we are quite successful doing this – we have reduced our list prices of graphene on copper three times within last year.

Do I need to have an account in the shop to order?

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Orders can be made in our shop 7/24. They are executed in working days.
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Shipping to Poland

Polish Postal Services (prioritaire), shipping in 2-3 days: 20 PLN, 6 EUR, 7 USD

Courier, shipping in 1-2 days: 25 PLN, 7 EUR, 8 USD
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Courier, shipping in 10-14 days: 130 PLN, 30 EUR, 35 USD
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